A. Tribal Era

-Before Europeans, hunter-gatherers

B. Frontier Era 1600s-1800s

-European settlers

C. Conservation 1832-1960

-Henry David Thoreau
George Parkins Marsh

-Govt. formed private groups tried protect nation’s resources and improve public health

-Forest Reserve Act of 1891

-Sierra Club founded by J. Muir
-lobbied national parks, protecting wilderness on public land

-Theodore Roosevelt (Rep)
-Wildlife refuges
-National forests tripled
-Antiquities Act: Protect areas of historical/sci interests
ex/ Grand Canyon
-National Park Service Act

-Warren G. Harding (Rep) scandal, drinker during prohib., KKK
-Calvin Coolidge (Rep) pro-business
-Herbert Hoover (Rep) during depression, sold govt. land

Great Depression

-Franklin D. Roosevelt (Dem)
-Civilian Conservation Corp.
-govt. bought land and hired workers to restore degraded land
-TVA
-Hoover Dam
-2 mil unemployed planted trees, maintained parks, levees/dams (led to cheap electricity for industry)
1970s
D. Environmental Era 1960- Present
-Rachel Carson “A Silent Spring” effects of DDT and industry
-Lyndon B. Johnson (Dem) Vietnam/Civil Rights
-Wilderness Act of 1964
-Authorized govt. to protect development of public land
-Paul Ehrlich “The Population Bomb”
-Richard Nixon (Rep)
-1st Earth Day
-EPA
-Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act
-Endangered Species Act of 1973
-Federal Land Policy and Management Act
-Control public land
-Sagebrush rebellion
-National Enviro. Policy Act (NEPA)
-Freedom of Information Act

-Jimmy Carter (Dem)
-Dept. of Energy
-added more land to national parks
Backlash…

-Ronald Reagan (Rep) self declared sagebrush rebel
-farmers, oil drillers, auto co, mining/timber companies supported him
-Cut funding on energy conservation research
-Sold public land to private companies
-Eliminated tax incentives for residential solar/ wind energy
-Relaxed air/water and gas mileage standards
-Wise use movement

-George Bush (Rep)

-Bill Clinton (Dem)
-Vetoed most anti-enviro bills
-Required SUVs to meet the same standards as cars

At the end of his term:
-Lawsuit action against industries not meeting Clean Air Act Standards
-More land to national parks
-George W. Bush (Rep)

-Clear Skies Initiative
-Healthy Forest Initiative
-Kyoto Protocol Treaty