AP Environmental Science Review Material

Practice Exam Keys

Diagnostic Exam

  1. Environmental Ethics and Environmental History
  2. Environmental Disasters
  3. The Water Cycle
  4. The Carbon Cycle
  5. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycles
  6. Ozone Depletion
  7. Global Warming
  8. Oceans
  9. The Atmosphere
  10. Lakes, Streams, Rivers, and Wetlands
  11. Plate Tectonics and the Rock Cycle
  12. Weathering and Erosion
  13. Endangered Species
  14. Ecosystems--Energy Flow, Trophic Roles, Productivity
  15. Ecosystems--Succession, Biodiversity, Island Biogeography
  16. Human Population Growth
  17. Toxicology
  18. Solid Waste Management
  19. Air Pollution
  20. Water Pollution, including water and wastewater treatment
  21. Energy Production with Fossil Fuels
  22. Alternative Energy Resources
  23. Mining and Mine Reclamation
  24. Soils
  25. Agricultural Production
  26. Energy Flow
  27. Environmental Laws and International Agreements
  28. Environmental Economics

Chapter 16 Food Resources.ppt
Chapter 16 Food Resources.ppt

Chapter 16 Food Resources.ppt
Chapter 16 Food Resources.ppt

Awesome Review Link

Jeopardy Review

Another Jeopardy Review

Yet Another Jeopardy Review

Environmental Laws Review Game

Unit and Law Flashcards/Review note

More summaries and review

‍Review PowerPoint by Ben Smith



Enviro. statutes.doc
Enviro. statutes.doc

Enviro. statutes.doc
Enviro. statutes.doc
Key to Practice Problems 2004.docx
Key to Practice Problems 2004.docx

Key to Practice Problems 2004.docx
Key to Practice Problems 2004.docx

2nd Trimester Review Sheet
Trimester A and B Review Vocabulary

Study Resources

145 Ways to go APES

Barron's AP Environmental Science Review
Cracking the AP Environmental Science Exam


Calculating a Population.ppt
Calculating a Population.ppt
Calculating a Population.ppt

  1. Define birth rate, death rate, emigration rate, and immigration rate. Write an equation to mathematically describe the relationship between these rates and the rate of population change.
  2. Define fertility rate. Describe how fertility rate affects population growth. List at least five factors that affect birth rate and five factors that affect death rate.
  3. Compare rates of population growth in developed and developing countries. Explain the differences you find. Briefly describe the state of teenage pregnancy in the United States.
  4. Using population age structure diagrams, explain how the age structure of a country creates population growth momentum. Summarize social impacts resulting from declining populations.
  5. List five approaches to slowing human population growth. List the four stages of the demographic transition. Briefly describe the controversies that surround controlling population size through controlling migration and family planning.
  6. Summarize India and China's experiences. Describe the three major shifts in population distribution in U.S. history.
  7. List seven resource and environmental problems faced by urban areas. Briefly describe the process of ecological land-use planning.
  8. Evaluate the costs and benefits of the automobile on U.S. society. List three alternative forms of transportation to the car, and evaluate the costs and benefits of each.
  9. Describe your conception of a sustainable urban environment.

Population Dynamics and Conservation.ppt
Population Dynamics and Conservation.ppt
Population Dynamics and Conservation.ppt

  1. Compare the abiotic and biotic factors that contribute to population growth (biotic potential) with the abiotic and biotic factors that limit population growth (environmental resistance).
  2. Define carrying capacity. Describe how carrying capacity affects exponential growth. Distinguish the concepts within each of the following sets of terms: stable, irruptive, and cyclic population change curves; r-strategist and K-strategist; Type I, Type II and Type III survivorship curves.
  3. Summarize how humans affect natural ecosystems. List six key features of living systems. Describe implications these features carry for human lifestyles. State the first law of human ecology and describe its implications for human interactions with the environment.


Chapter 7: Community Ecology

1. How are populations distributed? Give examples.
2. What are edge effects/ecotones?
3. What are non-native or invasive species? What problems can they cause?
4. What is an indicator species? What is a keystone species? Give some examples.
5. What are the main types of ecological interactions? Give examples of each.
6. What is the difference between interspecific and intraspecific competition?
7. Explain predator-prey interactions. What happens when one species is drastically decreased?
8. What is ecological succession? What is the difference between primary and secondary succession?
9. What is stability? What are the 3 aspects of stability or sustainablility in living systems?

Chapter 6: Biomes

What is a biome?
What are the main categories of biomes? Compare their climates.
What are some adaptations (plant and animal) of each?

Chapter 5: Evolution and Biodiversity

1. What is evolution? What is microevolution? What is macroevolution?
2. What is an adaptation? What is a mutation, and how does it occur?
3. What is a niche? How is it different from a habitat? How are realized and fundamental niches different?
4. Explain how new species arise. Explain how species become extinct?
5. What are some factors that increase diversity? What are some factors that decrease diversity?
6. What is natural selection? What are 3 types of natural selection?

Chapter 4: Ecosystems: Components, Energy Flow, and Matter Cycling

1. Define: organism, eukaryotic, prokaryotic, asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, population, genetic diversity, habitat, community, ecosystem, atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, biome, climate
2. What are the 3 main spheres of the biosphere? What are the 4 main parts of the atmosphere?
3. What sustains life on earth? What happens to solar energy as it reaches the earth?
4. What is the law of tolerance? What is a limiting factor? Give an example.
5. Define: Producer, autotroph, photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, consumer, heterotroph, decomposer, detrtitus feeder, omnivore, aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and biodiversity
6. What are the 3 main types of biodiversity? What is a gene pool?
7. What is a food chain? What is a food web? Which way do the arrows go?
8. What is a pyramid of energy flow? What organisms are at each trophic level? How much energy is available to herbivores if 10,000 units of energy is captured by plant, assuming a 10% ecological efficiency?
9. What is gross primary productivity? What is net primary productivity?
10. Sketch the path of the water cycle. Define evaporation, transpiration, condensation, infiltration, percolation, runoff. How do humans affect the water cycle?
11. Sketch the path of the carbon cycle. What are the major carbon storage reservoirs in the carbon cycle?
12. Sketch the path of the nitrogen cycle. Define: nitrogen fixation, nitrification, ammonification, denitrification, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia. Why must gaseous N2 be converted to nitrates?
13. Sketch the path of the phosphorus cycle. What is a major "natural" source of phosphorus? What is a major "manmade" source of phosphorus? Why is guano essential to this cycle?
14. Sketch the path of the sulfur cycle. Howo are humans affecting the sulfur cycle?
15. What is field research? Why is it important?
16. What are 2 basic principles of ecosystem sustainability?

Chapter 14: Water Chap 14 Power Point

1. What are water's unique properties?
2. How much water is available for our use? What are the main uses of water in the world? In the US?
3. What causes water shortages, and what are some possible solutions? What is an aquifer? Water table?
4. What causes flooding, and are some possible solutions?
5. What are the different kinds of water pollutants? Where do these pollutants come from and what effects do they have?
6. How can we prevent and reduce water pollution? How does water pollution recovery differ between rivers, lakes, groundwater, and oceans?
7. What are ways in which we can convert saltwater into freshwater?
8. Describe how a water treatment plant, sewage treatment plant, and septic tank function.
9. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of drinking tap and bottled water.
10. Compare the Safe Water Drinking Act, Clean Water Act, and Ocean Dumping Act.
11. Describe the case studies for this chapter.
12. What are the main water quality tests for the Rouge River? What range is optimal for biodiversity? Explain the importance of each.
13. What are the most important water quality tests for determining overall water quality?
14. How is overall water quality determined? What is a Q value and how is it determined from raw data?

Chapter 3: Science, Systems, and Matter

1. What is science? What are the steps of the scientific method?
2. Define: independent variable, dependent variable, constant, control
3. What are the major components of complex systems?
4. What is matter? What is the structure of an atom?
5. Define: atomic number, atomic mass, isotope
6. What is high-quality matter? What is low-quality matter?
7. What are the main forms of energy?Draw the electromagnetic spectrum.
8. What is high quality energy? What is low quality energy?
9. What is the difference between a physical and chemical change?
10. What is the law of conservation of matter? What does it mean to waste and pollution?
11. What are the three factors that determine the severity of a pollutant's harmful effects.
12. Define: degradable, nonpersistant, biodegradable, slow degradable, persistent, nondegradable
13. What is natural radioactive decay?
14. What is the difference between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion? Give examples of controlled and uncontrolled reactions
15. What are the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics? Why are these laws important to energy quality? How do these laws affect life and matter?
16. Compare and constrast high-throughput economies and low-throughput economies.

Chapter 1: Environmental Problems, Causes, and Sustainability

1. What is natural capital? What are natural resources? What are the ecological services?
2. What is an environmentally sustainable society?
3. Describe human population growth in various parts of the world?