Alpine Mountain
2nd and 3 Hour

Climate Description:
  • Snow
  • High winds
  • Ice
  • One of the coldest biomes in the world
  • High altitudes
  • -12 to 10 degrees Celsius -- 10.4 Fahrenheit to 50
  • Similar to Tundra biome
  • Cold and dry for majority of year
  • Drops 10 degrees Celsius for every 1000 meters increase in altitude
  • No trees
  • The side exposed to wind has the precipitation (rain shadow)

Five Plant Adoptions
  • Alpine Phacelia- Grow in clusters to keep warm and are covered in silky wooly hairs are to trap heat and diffuse harmful solar radiation
  • Pygmy Bitterroot- Located extremely close to the ground to keep away from wind
  • Spruce & Balsam Fir- Grow horizontally to avoid blowing ice
  • Dark colored to absorb more heat
  • Store water in leaves
  • Most are long lived perennials
  • Small leafed shrubs
  • Due to the dry conditions- many plants are succulents with water stored in thick leaves.
  • Plants also grow closer to the ground; this helps keep them out of the wind.
  • Flagging is another adaptation that some trees have inherited. It is where tree limbs grow only with prevailing winds.'


Animal Adaption’s
  • They have more fat and fur
  • Oxygen dense blood
  • Condors learn to lay their eggs on the edges of cliffs since there are no trees to build their nest
  • Snow leopard has the thickest coat off all cats, it’s coat allows it to also blend into rock
  • Winter feathers keep native birds warm in the winter.
  • The hooves of a Mountain goat are flexible so they can climb accross the steep slopes.


Parasitism
One of the least known alpine facts is that even parasitism is in the alpine region. This is usually seen in cases of liver tapeworm cysts (a type of disease). The liver tapeworm cysts seem to stay and grow in the body of various animals like moose, caribou and even wolves. These tapeworms then eat the food that is eaten by the animals, which leads to malnutrition (less nutrition) in the body that is in the animal.


Mutualism
Lichens grow on rocks outcrops and are an example of mutualism between fungus and cyanobacteria.

Commensalism
The caribou or reindeers like to feed on lichens when the weather is at its worst or coldest, this is the only food available which can provide them carbohydrates (the compound of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) and can give them energy and heat. So, when the caribou is looking for food, the arctic fox follows it. Then when the caribou digs into the ground snow looking for food, it digs up the soil and shows a little or at least brings closer to the surface some of the subnivean mammals (under the snow mammals), that’s when the arctic fox shares the predator and prey relationship in the tundra. So, once the caribou is done with its hunting the arctic fox follows it and digs deeper and gets its food in the type of the mammals. So, this is one of the best examples of commensalism in the tundra region where the caribou is not harmed but the arctic fox manages to get its food with some help from the caribou.

Predation
The snow leopard eats wild sheep, wild boars, gazelles, hares, markhor, bobak, tahr, marmots, mice and deer. This predation controls these animals population within the alpine ecosystem so over population doesn’t occur.
Climate:
  • Usally at least 10,000 feet above sea level
  • Average temperature during summer is around 50 degrees ferinihite and summer lasts from june to September
  • Winters last from October to May
  • Anuall mean temperature is between 30-50 degrees and tempeture usually
  • Temperature decreases on average 18 degrees ferinhite every 1,000 meters you gain in alttitude. Winters last from October to May
  • Average precipitation is 12 inches per year
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Bibliography
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/alpine.htm
http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/alpine.htm









Food Web:external image alpine-food-web-source.jpg

Food web




















Sybotic Relationships:
Parsatisim: The leeches in the Hymalayan mountains like to attach themsvlves to various animals especially ones with exposed skin such as other invertabrates. Then they suck the blood as their food source.
Predation: The golden Eagle can easily kill small animals such as rabits, foxes and occasionally even small mountain goat's.
The snow leapord also eat's various larger animals such as sheep, goats and rabits.