Chapparal
2nd Hour-Madison Lennox, Carly Yashinsky, Rennie Pasquinelli
Climate:
  • Mediterranean (mild, wet winters and hot dry summers)
  • Wildfires
  • Droughts

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Plant Adaptations:
  1. Blue Oakadapted to drought and dry climates. They can survive temperatures above 100° F for several weeks at a time. Average maximum temperatures in July can range from 70° to 100° F. In January minimum temperatures can range from 10° to 35° F.
  2. Common Sagebrush—when rain is scarce its deep tap roots find water, but when it does rain it has shallow roots that are spread out below the surface to absorb the water. When it is very dry sagebrush can still be living, but look dead. When this happens it can get uprooted and spread its seeds when blown by the wind.
  3. Mountain Mahogany main adaption is dwarfing (getting smaller to survive). It dwarfs because of severe drought, changes of climate, and the poor soil. This tree seems to be invincible because it cannot be killed by an axe (it cannot be killed by taking chops at it), drought or fire.
  4. Coyote Brush--takes on a different shape depending on where it lives. Shaped by salt spray and winds, it hugs low to the ground and forms a ground cover on dunes, ridges and plains. In protected places, like canyons and slopes, it grows into tall, mounded shrubs.
  5. King Protea--can take moisture in through its leaves. This works well where it grows because there isn't much annual precipitation.
Animal Adaptations:
  1. Black-tailed Jackrabbithave huge ears and can regulate its body heat by increasing or decreasing the blood flow through its ears. This helps the jackrabbit absorb heat or cool off. With its long, rangy legs it can run in bursts of up to 36 mph. Their speed helps them outrun many of their enemies. The soles of a jackrabbit's feet are covered with fur. This cushions their feet on hard ground and insulates them from the scorching heat of the desert sand. Their fur is a silver and tan color that blends in well with the desert and chaparral habitat that it lives in.
  2. Cactus Wren—their amount of eggs laid is determined by the food supply. This is an adaptation Cactus Wrens have made to the changing food availability in their desert and chaparral habitats. The female incubates the eggs for 16 days while the male builds several more nests throughout his territory for roosting and future nesting sites.
  3. Spotted Skunk—can live in a variety of temperatures. The western spotted skunk builds a den out of a hole in the ground and lines it with leaves. Occasionally they will live in a hollow tree.
  4. Grey Foxthe fox's back is whitish-grey in color. The sides of its neck, the base of its tail, back and legs and the underside of its tail are bright rusty-red. It has short legs that are very powerful. These legs are designed to give the fox tremendous ability to balance itself while it climbs. Strong, hooked claws allow them to pull themselves up tree trunks and branches. The color of its fur hides it from predators.
  5. Pumaalthough the preferred prey of the puma is deer, it will also eat insects, birds and mice. It will kill and eat any small to medium sized animal. It has a habit of scraping leaves over its kill to hide it. It will stay in the area and feed off the kill for several days. The puma won't eat anything another animal has already killed however.

Symbiotic Relationships
Mutualism- the Blue Oak and the common sage brush—benefit from one another by living together and providing important factors for the biome.
Commensalism- Red-winged Blackbird and a Torrey Pine—the Red-winged Blackbird eat seeds off the ground of the Torrey Pine and does not affect the Torrey Pines.
Parasitism- parasite lives on Brewer’s Blackbird—they obtain food from the bird and harm the bird at the same time.
Predation- Puma preys on the aardwolf; thus making the skunk it’s pray and the aardwolf the predator. The Puma hunts the aardwolf for food.




3rd Hour- Louis Sullivan, Hunter Osgood, Nathan Gaenssle, Sophie Gamble



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Locations:California, Chili, Australia, and Mediterranean


Animals:
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Plant adapations:
1. Olive trees can grow in nutrient-poor, well-drained soils
2. Olive trees have small leaves with a coating and hairy undersides that slows transpiration
3. Blue oak trees can live in temperatures up to 100 degrees for a week straight
4. The blue oaks roots can grow up to 80 feet to reach groundwater
5. The salt marsh bird’s beak plant is semi-parasitic and uses other plants to increase its lifespan


Animal adaptations:
1. The jackrabbits huge ears help regulate its body temperature, with hot days and cold nights
2. The jackal, who is normally a carnivore, has adapted to eat insects as well
3. The grey foxes coloring developed from the red fox migrating and the darker coloration becoming the more dominant trait
4. Kit foxes’ pads of their paws are hairy to help them get better traction on the sandy soil
5. The Bezoar goat has large horns, which are used to defend themselves and fight for females




Climate of Chaparral:
The Chaparral is in the Mediterranean climate region, between the latitudes 30 and 40. The average precipitation is between 10 and 17 inches a year. The climate of the Chaparral is between 30F and 100F. There are four season in a Chaparral with an average temp in winter at 46F, 65F in spring, while average temp during the summer is 71F. Summers are dry and hot while winters are cool and moist.




Symbiotic Relationships:

--Mutualism: The Cactus Wren use dry grass to build their nest. This makes room for new grass to grow. The birds can build a nest and the grass has room to grow.


--Commensalism: The Cactus Wren nest in spiky bushes, which offer protection from predators.


--Predation: The Puma hunts and eats deer, and other medium size animals


--Parasitism:The salt marsh bird's Beak uses pickleweed and salt grass to extend its growth.

Citation:

M., Lucy. "Chaparral Biome." Blue Planet Biomes. N.p., 2010. Web. 14 Nov. 2013.__http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/chaparral.htm__.

Vegetation such as sage brush, blue oaks, and olive trees are common producers in a California chaparral.
Herbivores or primary consumers of the chaparral include the California ground squirrel, various insects and big eared wood rat.
Secondary consumers or omnivores include golden jackals, Grey foxes and blackbirds.
Tertiary consumers in the chaparral include coyote, California black bear, and bobcat to name a few.