Desert is also known as the arid climate, the desert gets very little precipitation. Since the precipitation is very low,it is hard to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty scrub. An area that features this climate usually experiences less than 250 mm (10 inches) per year of precipitation and in some years may experience no precipitation at all. In some instances, an area may experience more than 250 mm of precipitation annually. There are three types of desert climate; one is hot climate, mild climate and cold climate. Hot desert climates are typically found under the subtropical ridge where there is largely unbroken sunshine for the whole year due to the stable descending air and high pressure. Some places that have a hot climate desert are the Sahara, the Arabian, Syrian and Kalahari Deserts, and large parts of Iran. Mild climate deserts are usually found along the west coasts of continents at tropical or near tropical locations, or at high altitudes in areas that would otherwise feature hot desert climates. A cold desert climate is typically found in temperate zones, almost always in the rain shadow of high mountains which restrict precipitation from the westerly winds, or in the case of Central Asia, from the monsoon. (Sahan & Dom)

Food Web:


(Sahan & Dom)

Plant Adaptaions:

-The stem of the Saguaro Cactus stores all of its water. The stem is green. Photosynthesis occurs in the top layer of the stem instead of in leaves. This plant has another adaptation that is hidden from us. This is its large net of roots that extend far away from its trunk. The roots collect water after rain. Stored in the pleated expandable stem, the water keeps the saguaro alive until the next rain. Saguaro fruit is used in jam and woody skeletons are used in building materials.
-The pleated shape of the Barrel Cactus allows it to expand when it rains and store water in its spongy tissue. It shrinks in size during dry times as it uses the stored water.
-The fish hook shaped spines of the Fish Hook Cactus help divert heat and shade the growing tip of the plant. Many cacti lean further toward the sun as they grow. Some may eventually uproot themselves.
-The waxy surface of the aloe plant acts like a plastic wrapper, keeping precious water inside. For centuries, the juice of the aloe plant has been used by Native Americans as a medicine.
-Succulent leaves can store water inside them. These leaves are usually thick and tough to reduce water loss.
Sahan And Dom

Animal Adaptations
Addax: are typical desert-dwellers, with their large, wide spreading hoofs, adapted to walking on soft sand, and they never drink, obtaining all the moisture they need from their food, which includes succulents. Their nomadic habits are closely linked to the sporadic rains, for addax appear to have a special ability to find the patches of desert vegetation that suddenly sprout after a downpour.
Desert Lark: The plumage of the desert lark perfectly matches the color of the desert soil and is the best example of soil camouflage in birds. The very dark subspecies, A. d. annae, blends with the black larval sand of central Arabia, while the pale race, A. d. isabellina, does not stray from areas of white sand. The nest is usually built up against a rock or tuft of grass and is reinforced on the windward side by small decorative pebbles.

Fat Sand Rat: The fat sand rat overcomes the problem of the unpredictability of desert food supplies by laying down a thick layer of fat all over its body when food is abundant. It then lives off this fat when food is short. Active day and night, this gerbil darts about collecting seeds and other vegetation which it carries back to its burrow.

Gila monster: This formidable, heavy-bodied lizard has a short, usually stout tail, in which it can store fat for use in periods of food shortage. It is gaudily patterned and has brightly colored beadlike scales on its back. The gila lives on the ground and shelters under rocks or in a burrow, which it digs itself or takes over from another animal. It is primarily nocturnal but may emerge during the day in spring. The two members of the gila monster family are the only venomous lizards. The venom is produced in glands in the lower jaw and enters the mouth via grooved teeth at the front of the lower jaw; it flows into the victim as the lizard chews. The gila also eats the eggs of birds and reptiles.

Lappet-Faced Vulture: The lappet-faced is a typical Old World vulture with perfect adaptations for a scavenging life. Its powerful hooked bill cuts easily into carrion, and its bare head and neck save lengthy feather-cleaning after plunging deep into a messy carcass. The immense broad wings, with widely spaced primary feathers, are ideal for soaring and gliding for long periods, using few wing beats.
Sahan and Dom

Symbiotic relationships
Mutualism: The mistletoe plant and the Phainopepla bird
The Phainopepla feeds on mistletoe berries and disperses the undigested seeds of these berries in the surroundings through its droppings. In this way the mistletoe plant provides food to Phainopepla, while the Phainopepla helps the mistletoe plant grow in the surroundings. Other mutualism examples in deserts include bees pollinating cacti and depending on it for food and coyote eating fruits and dispersing seeds through its scat.

Commensalism: The cactus wren and the cholla cactus
In this case, the cactus wren species builds its nest in cholla cactus. While this is beneficial for the bird as it helps it keep its young ones safe from predators, the cacti species remains unaffected. Other commensalism examples in deserts include the fringe toed lizard or gopher snake occupying a hole made by the desert rat and creosote bush growing under the shade of holly shrub.

Parasitism: The praying mantis and wasp
In this interaction between the praying mantis and wasp in Mojave desert of the United States, the wasp lays its eggs in the egg case of eggs laid by the praying mantis. When the wasps' eggs hatch, its larvae starts feeding on praying mantis' eggs and makes its way out. Other parasitism examples in the deserts include mistletoe species living on host plants such as desert ironwood and fleas living on the body of coyotes (and other desert animals.)

Predation is when two animals are share the relationship of 'predator and prey'. The predator is the animal that will hunt down and kill another animal for food. The prey is the animal that is killed. The Desert Coyote and the Pocket Mouse are an example of predation. The Desert Coyote needs food, so it will kill the mouse for food. The coyote is the predator and the mouse is the prey. The mouse has ways of fighting back, though. It's called adaptations. Adaptations are when a species evolves to stay alive. The Pocket Mouse has evolved to be faster, and more cunning. The coyote has evolved to be more silent and faster.