Tropical Savanna

THE GREAT PLAINS OF AFRICA

Climate Description: Above 64 degrees Fahrenheit. Averages 30 to 50 inches of precipitation and has a 5 month dry season. It is a tropical, dry and wet climate.

Plant adaptations: open canopy, drought resistant, fire resistant. Grow rather quickly.
Grass will turn brown as means of holding onto more water.
Plants will hold onto excess nutrients and water by storing mass amounts within roots.
Umbrella Thorn Acacia: Capable of growing from within sand dunes and can survive on rainfall equivalent to 4cm annual rainfall
The Jarrah tree has adapted to survive by implementing a biolgocail “device” called the lignotuber, which allows the storing of carbohydrates and allows the tree to re-grow despite being burned.

Animal adaptation:
Animals will migrate in search of active water.
Elephants can access water from the trunk roots of Baobab trees.
Small burrowing animals become dormant during times of drought
Some animals are fire resistant (by outrunning or burrowing away from fires)
Giraffes with longer necks are favored to fight off other giraffes and compete for dominance

Symbiotic relationships:

Predation: Lion and gazelle: The lion stalks and preys on the unsuspecting gazelle for a food source.

Mutualism: Hippo and hammerkop: The hammerkop bird sits on the hippo’s back and eats the parasites that harm the hippo.

Commensalism: Hyena and the Lion. Hyena scavenges for the kills leftover from the lions after they are done eating. The hyena gains food from the help of the lion but the lion is not affected at all.

Parasitism: African Elephant and the African Tick. Tick samples some blood from the elephant and are found in abundance on the elephant

Food Web:
external image food%20web.gif







Sources:
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/savanna_plant_page.htm

https://www.cotf.edu/modules/earthsys/savannahA.html

http://apassionforscience.pbworks.com/template

http://cougarbiology.pbworks.com/f/1242836276/food%20web.gif


3rd Hour -- Alec Barnes and Allison Kelley

Tropical Savanna



Climate:
  • Generally a mildly wet and dry climate, with small fluctuations on both fronts.
  • Dry season is the winter, all of the rain occurs during the summer.
  • Temperature range of 68 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • 10 to 30 inches of rain per year.


Food Web
external image FOOD%20WEB.JPG?height=309&width=400
Lion: Tertiary >>>>>> 190,500 grams = 1 Lion
Cheetah: Secondary >>>>> 50,000 grams = 49 cheetahs
Zebra: Primary = 36,000 grams = 67 zebras’
Tall grass: Producer >>>> 1 gram = 19,050,000 pieces of tall grass

5 Plant Adaptations
Baobab stores water in its trunk during the wet months so it can use the water during the dry months.

Since the savanna supports animals that eat from tall plants and trees, some of the natural defenses for the trees is to have poisonous sap. The candelabra tree is so potent that it will blind you if you touch your eyes with it.

The Jarrah tree has a large swelling underground (called a lignotuber) which stores carbohydrates so that the tree could grow back after a fire.

The Kangaroo Paw plant has strong stems and bright leaves so that birds and other pollinators can perch on them, helping the kangaroo paw plant reproduce.

The whistling thorn acacia drops its leaves in the dry season to conserve water.

5 Animal Adaptations


African elephants developed a specific diet of shrubs and trees, which over time leads to other animals being able to enjoy more vast diet.

Since the African Wild Dog has no natural defenses, with weak limbs and small teeth, it relies entirely on its stamina, chasing its prey to exhaustion, it is then able to utilize their advantage.

Egyptian Mongooses are able to survive because the color of their fur blends in with the surroundings of the savanna.

The Nile Crocodile can camouflage in the water, making it almost impossible to see by their prey.

The Black Mamba is by all means invulnerable, it’s venomous blood makes it impossible to be killed by any enemy.

Symbiotic Relationships

Mutualism
Termites build mounds of soil, which provide moisture for the Jackal Berry Tree. The tree’s roots protect termites from predators.

Commensalism
An example of commensalism would be the lion and the hyena. Both of them being carnivores, the lion actively eats the prey, and then the hyena eats the leftovers.

Predation
Lions are one of the top predators and feed on other mammals, usually primary or secondary consumers.
Vultures and hyenas scavenge meat from animals that have been killed.

Parasitism
An example of parasitism in the savanna is the tick taking blood from the Wild dog, the skin of the dog is much more permeable and therefore the tick can easily attach itself.


Works Cited
https://sites.google.com/site/cmrileytropicalsavanna/food-web-trophic-pyramids
http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/savannah.html
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/savanna.htm
http://www.ask.com/question/example-of-commensalism-in-a-savanna
https://charterscience.wikispaces.com/Tropical+savanna
http://www.ask.com/question/parasitism-for-tropical-savanna
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_a_parasitism_in_tropical_savanna